Education System of Nepal
- General Concept
Education is regarded as one of the greatest qualities and virtues of human being. It is education that differentiates human beings from the animals. In praise of education, a Sanskrit stanza says that education infuses a man with decorum, decorum procures in him worthiness; worthiness brings him wealth and finally wealth fills him with happiness. To conclude, according to this verse, education is an origin of happiness. Education is essential to distinguish between right and wrong. Education is the necessity for a country. If the citizen of a country are uneducated, they cannot understand what they have to do for the country’s development, how they can ‘work on projects and how they can carry out development works. Education gives ordinary people skill, efficiency and strength to manage administration and translate plans into action. Our country needs skilled manpower in agriculture, industry, transport, communication, trade, administration etc. All kinds of development- social, political, economic prosperity depends on competent workers.
- A Brief History of Education in Nepal
Education in Nepal from the ancient times was based on Gurukul system where the Gurus taught their disciples, especially in an informal set up. The disciples used to live in the Ashrams and they used to follow the words taught by their Gurus. Actually educational curriculum was based on the prevalent customs, traditions and philosophies of life. In addition, social norms and values were also included in the curriculum. Sanskrit would be the medium language of the study. Informal system of education continued until Junga Bahadur Rana established an English medium school intending to impart English education primarily for his sons. Rana period was considered as the Dark Age in the history of Nepal as the general people were deprived of education.
The advent of democracy in 2007 BS was a gate way that brought new dimensions in education with opening of many schools in the period of B P Koirala, the then first elected prime Minister of Nepal. The Panchayat system also paid good attention in expanding the education horizons in Nepal though their focus of curriculum was more inclined in the appreciation of the system and the monarchs. The entry of private sector in education largely made the education opportunities expand in nook and corners of societies that brought education in the access of large population after the decade of 2040s. The restoration of democracy in 2046 further made education system move forward in an accordance to the international standards steadily thought the pace of change and improvement is always lagging behind that the expectation.
- Present education system of Nepal
Education of today is with the stage of development. Education in Nepal is structured as school education and higher education. School education includes primary level of grades 1-8 and secondary levels of grade 8 -12 respectively. The pre-school has been kept under the school system after the recent bill passed by parliament. The new education act has envisioned the private sectors contribution in education through public trust, not as private company. Besides formal universities, the new act has also envisioned Open University which is a new dimension in education in Nepal.
SLC in Nepal is commonly known as one of the most important exams in their school life. SLC was introduced long ago as a standardized test at the end of school years, which now takes place in regional level. The marking system in the test has now been changed in to a grading system. This is one of the best steps adopted by government to mainly focus on how to improve the secondary level exam evaluation process as well as to avoid unnecessary competitions among the students.
According to new grading system in SLC result is students securing above 90%:A+, students securing between (80-90)%: A, students securing between (60-79)%: B, students securing between (40-59)%: C, students securing between (25-39)%: D, students securing below 25%:E. government officials of education ministry are hoping this step will narrow down the gap between students. What we can do is wait for the impact this grading system to make.
Grades 11 and 12 are now merged in secondary level of education which is all managed and administered by the Department of Education. The new act has replaced the HSEB by National Examination Board
Higher education consists of Undergraduate, Postgraduate, and Research Level. The M Phil and PH D programs are being conducted by almost all universities functioning in Nepal. The undergraduate is of 4 years except in some programs like Bachelor of Arts, and Postgraduate are of 2 years. The M Phil is a research bridge course to prepare researchers for carrying doctoral level research.
- Facts about education in Nepal
While education in Nepal greatly improved throughout the twentieth century, Nepal still faces many struggles to date. The education challenges largely relate to poverty of Nepal.
- The current education system in Nepal is one of the youngest in the world. Until recent years, Nepal followed a three-tier education system, modeled on the traditional Indian system, which ear-marked ten years for college education, and two for a master program at university.
- Nepal’s education system is getting into the international standards. Privately run schools seem to be providing better learning opportunities to students with better facilities to students.
- The government is trying to allocate reasonably good amount of budget in education with the expectation of making the education facilities accessible to all students
- Nepal is working in international goal of Education for all
- Technology is getting introduced in teaching and learning environment that has changed the scenario in teaching and learning situation from the teacher center teaching to student center teaching.
- The cities and urban areas are the center education especially higher ones. The students from rural areas need to migrate to cities and urban areas to find better educational opportunities.
- Privately run schools and boarding schools have been the first choices for elite class people. However, the system is being followed by middle and low class people.
- Girl education is getting equal priority in the recent years unlike it was practiced in the past.
- Technical and vocational education is getting in the access of common people after the involvement of private sectors in education
- Many foreign universities affiliated institutions are offering international degrees from Nepal itself.
- Students are opting to fly to foreign lands for higher education is bigger number now than in the past.
The education in Nepal is trying to catch the international pace in spite of its short history of formal education. It has been greatly changed over the last few decades. However, there are still many changes and improvements that need to be introduced in order to make the system produce globally competitive citizens. The universities need to introduce modern courses that could be fulfilling to students and the need of the time. The government has to work hard to make the UN Goal of Education for all come true with the set deadline of 2020. We have many areas where we can be satisfied with the changes, but still the focus now has to change from theory based university courses to technical and vocational courses that could generate more employment opportunities and make students industrious in themselves. The recent changes in the education has is a step forward in finding a lot of improvements in education. The student politics in the educational institutions and the political affiliation of the teachers and professors shall be minimized in order to ensure quality education through professional delivery.
Report by:- As a partial fulfillment of the training program for Tourist Guide
August, 2016 by Tulasi Ram Puri and the group!